But the Arab nations wanted an Islamic country with nuclear weapons that could deter Israel. The intervention of the outside powers has only exacerbated the conflict which can be solved through trust and confidence in each other. Refer Robert G. Wirsing, India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir Dispute: On Regional Conflict and its Resolution (London: Macmillan Press, 1994), p. 107. 15. The Bangladesh war and its impact on the power structure in South Asia, the Afghanistan crisis, the supply of advanced technology and weapons to Pakistan by China, a Pakistan oriented US foreign policy etc., have been the external situational inputs of Indian Foreign Policy. It is said that President Zia-ul-Haq had put into action a three-phase plan for the liberation of the Kashmir Valley. Its integration is important not only because of its strategic significance but also because its disintegration would have a spillover effect on other states leading to the balkanisation of the Indian Union.25, Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the prime contentious issue with India and unless it is resolved, cooperation in other areas is not possible. In recent times, conflict in Syria is a prime example where Damascus represented a buffer state by global powers: Russia and the US. Prime Minister Shastri said in Parliament: "I cannot say that the present policy (of nuclear pacifism), is deep-rooted, that it cannot be set aside and that it would not be changed." Phase two advocated more intense engagement of the Indian Army in Poonch or Siachen in order to keep them away from the valley, and destroy their base depots, airfields, radio stations and block the Banihal tunnel and Kargil-Leh highway with the help of Afghan Mujahideen from POK. However, the most notable feature after partition was Pakistan's fear of India's strength which outclasses it in every comparison. 18, no. Pakistan is at war with itself. The Indian nuclear policy underwent changes after the Sino-Indian War in 1962 and the first Chinese bomb explosion in 1964 which forced Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri to dilute the policy of Nehru. Refer POT (P), vol. The Cold War era was a new phase for international capital as it saw the advent of nuclear weapons and the beginning stages of proxy warfare. An amphibious assault ship, the Tripoli, with a battalion of 800 Marines, three guided missile escorts, four destroyers, a nuclear attack submarine, and an oiler were sent by the US to support Pakistan to change the outcome of the war. The Indo-Pak relations have reached a new threshold where the arms race has led to modernisation of their weapons and development of nuclear capabilities. Subsequently, the Soviets despatched a force of six vessels to the Indian Ocean. They both have a mutual interest in nurturing insurgency within Pakistan. Pakistan and allies Opponents Results; First Indo-Pakistani War (1947–1948) Dominion of Pakistan Furqan Force: Dominion of India Jammu and Kashmir: Ceasefire. While the Pak Army is unlikely to change its approach for its own interests, the terrorism is … The Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan met at Tashkent on January 3, 1966. The US presence in the Indian Ocean brought in the Soviet naval presence. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war. In March 1965, Ayub Khan visited China and secured not only Chou-en-Lai's assurances of support to Pakistan in the event of an Indian aggression but also military supplies. Lead Stories 108-109. Since then, Pakistan has been asking Indian forces to withdraw from their positions and accept the boundary as was acceptable in 1972, whereas India insists that Pakistan accept the Saltoro Ridge as the line of control.34 The contentious issue persists. Thus, the Soviet Union vetoed all the resolutions in the Security Council which did not aim for ceasefire and recognition of the will of East Pakistan's population. Direct involvement hurts the brand value of countries in the international arena so they employ proxy wars to engage other aggressors. External factors of instability in Pakistan – troubled alliances in war Mohammad Waqas Sajjad* Introduction Boasting as many „firsts‟ as it is guilty of, Pakistan has been in the limelight for a significant part of its short history. A proxy war involves the use of third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly while powers have sometimes even used governments as proxies. America is opposed to the Indian and the Pakistani moves to go for the nuclear bomb as it could encourage other countries to go nuclear, thus, leading to a breakdown of the existing international nuclear order. Refer S.D. Anarchy in the international arena has destroyed lives due to the demolition wreaked. Refer Abba Dixit, "India, Pakistan and the Great Powers" in Jasjit Singh ed., India and Pakistan: Crisis of Relationship (New Delhi: Lancers International, 1990), p. 21. It is said that the money generated through smuggling of narcotics is used to keep terrorism and insurgency alive. This 700-km-long line running from Chammb in the south to Ladakh at NJ 9842 point after which there is glacier, provided the future battleground between the two countries in the glaciers. The unsettled Kashmir issue was raised as the bogey of Indian threat and Pakistan's yearning to acquire nuclear capability. The spread of fundamentalism in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Jammu and Kashmir can spread to China's areas lying close to them and exacerbate its already prevalent ethnic problem in the Xinjiang province. Shelton Kodikara, "South Asian Security Dilemmas in the Post-Cold War World" Bajpai and Cohen eds., n. 11, p. 54. 36. War is an inevitable phenomenon; littering human history as it laid waste to significant chunks of the human race. A proxy war involves the use of third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly while powers have sometimes even used governments as proxies. Pakistan's nuclear programme began in the mid-1950s when the Pakistan Energy Commission was set up under the Chairmanship of Nazir Ahmed. However, violent non-state actors, mercenaries or other third parties are more often employed. The political stability of South Asia got shaken when the American U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviets in May 1960.4 The plane had reportedly taken off from a Pakistani base. "23 He hoped that Pakistan would not respond to the Indian action but a few days later, Pakistan also conducted six nuclear tests on June 28 and 30. This was the first declaration by the Indian government favouring nuclear weapons.13 Indian anxiety over the Chinese nuclear programme had never diminished since 1964; in fact, with the launching of China's first nuclear missile in October 1966, Indian concerns became more critical.14 The Indian debate on the bomb became more intense when China launched its first satellite in 1970. 25. Russia and China are concerned about the rising militancy and Islamic fundamentalism in Pakistan. Refer Dieter Brown, The Indian Ocean: Region of Conflict or "Zone of Peace"? India accuses Pakistan only and refuses its involvement in Afghanistan while the Pakistani and Afghan officials repeatedly discussed the solutions to the proxy war. In short, proxy wars … 1-2, February-March 1995, p. 42. 21. Rich Pakistan With Abdul Rehman 57,787 views 10:02 CCS Board of Education Special Session Meeting 08/06/2020 Caldwell County Schools Board of Education 563 watching Reiterating the Indian security concerns, the Indian Minister of State for External Affairs, Vasundhara Raje, said in Parliament that the government has communicated its apprehensions to various countries, including China, at a bilateral level about the defence cooperation between China and Pakistan, including supply of materials and technology.18 Starting with the transfer of technology for building the reprocessing plant at Nilore in 1965 to agreeing to supply heavy water in May 1976, the nuclear cooperation between the two countries has evolved considerably. When that happens Pakistan feels that it must be in position to install a friendly regime in Kabul, one that will expel the Indian advisors, spies, diplomats, contactors, etc and provide a potentially friendly area to the rear of Pakistan in the event of another major war with India. Much to the liking of China, Pakistan's role in engaging India on its western border is not diminishing.20, The year 1998 is crucial for both India and Pakistan which openly expressed their nuclear capability by conducting nuclear tests. The geo-strategic location of Kashmir with a predominant Muslim population was the paradise and asset that Pakistan was determined to gain. 4, no. 14. The significance of Pakistan in helping to stabilise the internal stability of Afghanistan cannot be ignored which is essentially not only for the peace and tranquillity of the region but also for the vast resources of oil and natural gas in Central Asia which can traverse to Pakistan through Afghanistan.10 Simultaneously, Indo-US relations improved because of the economic compulsions. (London: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 31. President Ayub was convinced that this would upset the Indo-Pak military balance and India might use the arms provided by the US against Pakistan. 21, no. As Pakistani dependence on US arms reduced after the 1971 War, the Chinese became willing participants in the proposed military collaboration and technology transfers not only to establish military links with Pakistan but also because it helped subsidise their own Research and Development programme.12 Though Sino-India relations have been moving towards normalisation, China's weapons supply to Pakistan remains a major concern for India. In the Ministry of Natural Resources and Scientific Research, a separate Department of Atomic Energy was created in 1954. Russian Vice-President Alexander Rutskoi visited Pakistan in December 1992 where both sides agreed to cooperate in the field of defence.11. 30. - It is the US which started the first proxy war in Afghanistan against the USSR using Pakistan and thus introducing the idea of proxy war in this region. To India, Kashmir is an integral part of its Union. 2. Hence, India and Pakistan started building their naval strength which has become a commendable force. Refer Shrikant Paranjpe, US Non-Proliferation Policy in Action: South Asia (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1987), p. 22. Pakistan wanted to counter the alleged Indian threat by building up its military strength and was not averse to maintaining relations with the Great Powers.1 This was evident when in 1954 it entered into a Mutual Security Pact with the US which changed the whole context of the problems existing between India and Pakistan. In order to avoid dependence on one supplier, Pakistan gradually moved towards China. A proxy war is defined to be "a war fought between groups of smaller countries that each represent the interests of other larger powers, and may have help and support from these". The pursuit of power and global supremacy has birthed nothing but devastation. 16. Pakistan claimed that the threat from India propelled it to conduct the nuclear tests. Refer H.S. He recognised India as the primary threat and India's nuclear programme as directly against Pakistan, which became more pronounced in the Pakistani perception after the Pokhran explosion. Refer Nisha Sahai Achuthan, Soviet Arms Transfer Policy in South Asia 1955-81 (New Delhi: Lancers International, 1988), pp. Pakistan pronounced its nuclear option as a defensive measure to forestall the nuclear blackmail and hegemony of India.15. Chidananda Rajghatta "US wants Kashmir on Global Agenda," Indian Express, June 5, 1998. However, Pakistan realised that conventional wars would not serve its purpose to bring Kashmir under its fold, and it needed another strategy to counter India. Pakistan had foreseen the utility of developing relations with China and it declared India as the aggressor against China in 1962.6 Pakistan treated China as a shield to protect itself from any possible Indian attack. Pakistan was under an obligation under the Mutual Security Act, not to use American weapons in aggression against any other country. Arun Mohanty, "Russia Proposes P-5 mediation in J&K," The Pioneer, June 4, 1998. "24, The Kashmir issue is the legacy of India's partition in 1947 when the princely states were asked to join either India or Pakistan. But when it comes to its neighbor, a realistic assessment reveals India’s capabilities are highly confined for various reasons. Pakistan may take some cosmetic measures under pressure and then would resume its proxy war. Though critical of the Pakistani attempt to develop nuclear capability, the Reagan policy was more favourable towards Pakistan because of the growing crisis in Iran and Afghanistan. Nanda, "Resolving the Kashmir Enigma," Defence Today, vol. The Soviets constantly issued protest notes to Pakistan that the US air bases in Pakistan had a direct bearing on their security. It is a dire need of the hour render powerful dynamics that allow people to harmoniously coexist in the world by maintaining good ties with one another. Meanwhile the Indo-Pak conflict was being discussed at the United Nations. As discussed earlier, the external powers were indirectly involved in the regional wars (through arms aid) and actively involved in the Security Council, thus, exacerbating the already existing tensions. 25. The Indo-Pak subcontinent experienced a rise in defence expenditure soon after the war. Pakistan has also linked its reluctance to sign the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and CTBT because of the Indian reservations on the treaties. The SSP, getting funds from both Iraq and Saudi Arabia, was further supported by the Iraq-Iran war of 1980’s, as the parties to the war made Pakistan a proxy theater. As discussed earlier, the ceasefire line between India and Pakistan stops at Point NJ9842; beyond the point lies the Siachen Glacier after which the border between India and Pakistan has not been demarcated. China's technical assistance to Pakistan in its nuclear programme is of special concern to India. Pakistan kindled in the Arab world the feeling that only the Islamic world does not have a nuclear bomb. In 1984, India occupied the commanding heights of the glacier. It was a time when the imperialist nations, regardless of which side they were on during WWII, found a common interest in stopping the spread of Communism and seeking the destruction of the Soviet Union. In May 1974, the Atomic Energy Commission conducted a nuclear explosion at Pokhran in the Rajasthan desert. In the northern front, Kashmir was once again posing a problem. In 1948, Pakistan sent Waziri and Mansud tribals from the North-West Frontier to free Kashmir from the Hindu Maharajah. Both the United States and the former Soviet Union have vied with each other for gaining a foothold in the South Asian region. In 1975, the US lifted the embargo on the supply of arms to Pakistan under the pretext that the Soviet Union had dumped excess arms in India. 35, no. Though it had pledged to respect the Treaty of Peace and Friendship with India, it also made efforts to develop relations with Pakistan. Bhabani Sen Gupta, Nuclear Weapons? The US had been giving aircraft and airfield equipment to Pakistan under the pretext that India had obtained sophisticated weapons from the former USSR whereas Pakistan had inferior weapons from China and a small quantity from the US. India retaliated and a full-fledged war erupted which lasted till September 23, 1965.7 The Indian authorities informed the US about the use of American weapons by the Pakistani forces. Pakistan has also been cultivating relations with the Muslims of the Terai and India through setting up Muslim organisations which not only impart training and religious education but also foment anti-India activities. Hence, for the supply of weapons, reliance on outside suppliers, mainly the UK and later France, had to continue. Chopra, Genesis of Indo-Pakistan Conflict on Kashmir (New Delhi: Patriot Publishers, 1990), pp. "29 Hitherto, India had been supported by the Soviet Union in the Security Council. Nifty 13,717.85 35.15. Vajpayee and pin-up. Rajan, India's Foreign Policy and Relations (New Delhi: South Asian Publishers, 1985), pp. On March 25, fresh riots broke out, resulting in the migration of East Bengalis towards India. The Pokhran explosion had led the US to think about matters of proliferation. Robert L. Hardgrave Jr., India Under Pressure: Prospects for Political Stability (USA: West View Press, 1984), p. 159. Company’s Financials 139, p. 1688. 4, no. 25-26. Pakistan proved useful to the US in its policy of Containment of Communism in the region. This is neither desirable nor is it militarily achievable. 3, July-September 1996, p. 334. Pakistan was the third country, after Turkey and Romania, to recognize Azerbaijan, and has close relations with that country. The US and Japan imposed economic sanctions. Both sides presented different priorities of items on the agenda but later they agreed to a mutually acceptable draft for the agenda. The UK was the first on the preference list of the suppliers of weapons as the existing arms and equipment were mainly of British origin and it was logical to replace the spare parts from the original source. The national urge to occupy areas with prominent Muslim demographic pattern, notably Kashmir, is one of the primary aims of Pakistani foreign policy and military strategy. The US, on the other hand, sent twelve C-130 Hercules transport planes with the crews to help India in transporting its men and materials on the mountainous borders.5. India has been instigating proxy war in Afghanistan mainly against Pakistan that began after the collapse of Dr. Najibullah’s regime in 1992, which had been backed by the former USSR. This has been especially true since the events of With this strategic view, the war of 1948 was waged in which Pakistan occupied parts of Kashmir. Shukla, India and Pakistan: The Origins of Armed Conflict (New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications, 1984), p. 13. Japan has cut aid worth $26 million to India. In the same year, the Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor was established with the help of the USA and it functions under the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After the war, the economy of the warring countries was shattered. 33. On one side, there is an indirect conflict between nuclear rivals: Pakistan and India. Economic Conditions of Pakistan, the Most Recent Economic Survey, the Previous and Current Budgets, and the Problems and Performance of Major Sectors of Economy. Turkey shot down the fighter planes of Russia in Syria. The Pakistan army has been most confident of the sub-conventional or covert war dimension of its … A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities. 12, March 1997, p. 1603. The Soviet Union supported the Indian argument that Pakistan had failed to renounce the policy of repression and had not released Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with the intention of finding a solution according to the will expressed by the people of East Pakistan in the elections. R. Chakrapani, "UN Council Strongly Deplores Tests" The Hindu, May 15, 1998. The Chinese attack on India in 1962, however, placed the USSR in a delicate position as it was difficult for it not to support a Communist state, Hence, Moscow adopted a neutral position. It also tried to accumulate weapons from all the available sources. The Pakistan Embassy in Nepal is reported to be providing financial assistance and transit facilities to the Kashmiri militants. 35. In 1977, the US enacted the Symington Amendment, which prohibits aid to countries with uranium enrichment facilities. Any kind of war is a brutal expression of politics and realism. 18. Instead of containing Russian influence in the subcontinent, the US is more anxious about containing the growing influence of China, both economically and militarily, in East Asia. Foreign Office spokesman Tarar Altaf said that unless the root cause (Kashmir) is discussed, the agreed agenda of talks which includes peace, security and confidence building measures would remain ineffective.26 For India, Kashmir is an unfinished "agenda of partition" which can be fulfilled only after the areas of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, Northern Gilgit and Baltistan are integrated with India.27 Pakistan's effort to internationalise the Kashmir issue is not appreciated by India. 17. In October 1960, an Indian delegation went to Moscow to negotiate and finalise the deal for the purchase of aircraft and communications equipment. 4. 32. 8, November 1995, p. 1144. Vivek Chadha replies: India's internal security problems are a manifestation of internal weaknesses and external attempts at waging a proxy war. A proxy war occurs when a major power instigates or plays a major role in supporting and directing a party to a conflict but does only a small portion of the actual fighting itself. China is still a key player in providing arms to Pakistan. All along, military planners in Pakistan have derived unmitigated comfort in the fact that proxy war could be conducted in the shadow of nuclear capability, thus obviating conventional conflict. Economic Conditions of Pakistan, the Most Recent Economic Survey, the Previous and Current Budgets, and the Problems and Performance of Major Sectors of Economy. Mirza Aslam Beg "Pakistan's Nuclear Programme: A National Security Perspective," National Development and Security, vol. Pakistan had planned to organise a "Kashmir Revolt Day" on August 9, 1965, to mark the twelfth anniversary of Sheikh Abdullah's arrest and on the same day its forces were to reach Srinagar with machine guns, mortar and other heavy equipment. The Russian statement is a deviation from its earlier official stand that the Kashmir issue should be discussed between India and Pakistan under the Simla Accord.30, China had supported Pakistan on Kashmir which had acted as a second front against India with whom it had a border demarcation problem leading to war in 1962. However, Nehru had publicly opposed India developing nuclear weapons and had asserted that nuclear energy would be used for power production. India was gradually opening up its market and liberalising its economy and the US companies could accrue benefits from the large Indian market. The Indo-Soviet relations coincided with the deteriorating Sino-Soviet and Sino-India relations. Pakistan felt let down by the US which should have extended help to them as per the assurances given to them when Pakistan joined the South-East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) and Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO). Arms and ammunition flow from Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK) towards Jammu and Kashmir. The interest shown by China in the Indo-Pak subcontinent became a matter of concern to the American policy makers. 3. China has always considered it the sovereign right of any nation to develop its own nuclear weapons.31 However, after the nuclear tests conducted by India, China reacted strongly and urged the US to take stringent measures against India. For example, the dispute on the sharing of the Indus River waters, immediately after partition, was taken to the World Bank. In the same manner, Balochistan has become the hub of foreign involvement, and is the centre of the world’s secret agencies. However, after the nuclear tests conducted by both India and Pakistan, Russian Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov extended a three-point proposal including the P-5 mediation on Kashmir. The plan was codenamed "Topac" after Topac Amru, an Inca prince who fought an unconventional war against the Spanish rule in 18th century Uruguay. external actors. The Indian victory in the Indo-Pak War of 1971 gave a powerful boost to the development of nuclear capabilities. The Indian subcontinent, by virtue of its geo-strategic location and population, for many years has been a central area of the Great Power struggle for influence. Latest News Refer Ratna Tikoo, Indo-Pak Relations: Politics of Divergence and Convergence (Delhi: National Publishing House, 1987), p. 220. Regional Wars or Proxy Wars The freedom of India and Pakistan from the British rule was the beginning of another era filled with chaos, confusion, hatred, conflict. Policy Options for India (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1983), p. 2. 27. In phase one, low level insurgency in India was advocated which included planting people at key positions like police, financial institutions, etc; armed groups to be trained to meet the paramilitary forces; the lines of communications to be disrupted between Jammu and Kashmir; and exacerbation of anti-India feelings. 27. Proxy Wars: Role of External Elements 26. This enabled Pakistan to persuade the US to lift the arms embargo. India has been both the target and the transit point for the narcotics. This led to the appointment of a United Nation's Commission on India and Pakistan (UNCIP) which proposed ceasefire, demilitarisation and plebiscite by its resolutions of August 13, 1948, and January 5, 1949. In March 1971, India sent a formal note to Pakistan desiring a summit between Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and President Bhutto. 10. The Recent Constitutional and Legal Debates, the Latest Constitutional Amendments and Important Legislations, Legal Cases and the Role of Higher Courts. Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 2020 Daily Times Website Developed By Daily Times Developers. On the following day, the State Department declared US neutrality in the Indo-Pak conflict. Muni, "The Emerging Cold War in Asia: India's Options," Strategic Analysis, vol. Similarly, the Trump administration would not want another major economic hub in Beijing’s arsenal. Pakistan's nuclear linkage with the Arab countries started around 1973 when an agreement was signed with Libya to finance Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear weapons.16 Pakistan's need was purely economic. Direct involvement hurts the brand value of countries in the international arena so they employ proxy wars to engage other aggressors. Above and beyond the internal power struggle, the conflict has acquired the character of a proxy war in which international, regional and subna-tional conflicts are fought out. Internal Enemies Following are Pakistan’s major internal enemies Lack of Nationalism: Lack of nationalism gave rise to many Pakistan. In The Brookings Essay, Historian William Dalrymple examines Afghanistan's future as the U.S. and allies withdraw, a future caught between India and Pakistan in a potentially deadly proxy war. However, through diplomatic efforts, India has been trying to negotiate with China. To make the situation worse, new political, social and economic problems erupted, straining relations between the two countries. America agreed to the Pakistani demand of plebiscite in Kashmir. The main support of the superpowers was displayed in the United Nations. India strived towards attainment of self-sufficiency in the nuclear programme but this was not possible for a newly independent country to achieve on its own. Home Since then, Pakistan has raised the issue as a champion of the rights of the Muslim Kashmiris. The Pakistan Institute of Science and Technology established at Nilore, near Rawalpindi, in 1965, provided research and training facilities for scientists and technicians in the country. The Indo-Pak War in 1971 witnessed direct intervention by the US and the former USSR. In smaller groups Pakistan, by bits and small pieces, is attacking India. Until recently, Pakistan was prepared to sign the treaty provided India did so.35 However, in July 1998, Pakistan delinked its reasons for not signing the treaty from India and stated its own security compulsions as the guiding force. It is in Delhi’s interests to destabilize Islamabad as that would divert Pakistan’s focus from CPEC towards its internal affairs. The treaty formalised the Indo-Soviet friendship assuring the former of solid support in and outside the UNO. 3, July-September 1996, p. 345. Thus, the Indo-Pak politics took a new turn, with new allies, which brought added tension in the subcontinent. In continuation of its theocratic ideology, Pakistan started pressurising the Maharajah of Kashmir who was undecided about joining either India or Pakistan, to join Pakistan. The US sent "Task Force 74" headed by the nuclear powered carrier Enterprise and half a dozen other ships into the Bay of Bengal through the Straits of Malacca. Simultaneously, on April 6, 1979, the US cut off military and economic aid worth $90 million to Pakistan. It was believed that the Indian nuclear weapons would compel China and Pakistan to change their attitude of hostility towards India. Pakistan holds assets in the form of separatist and radical religious groups in India-administered Kashmir and … India, too, has played a significant role in Afghanistan and, as alleged by the security establishment, inside Pakistan, particularly in Balochistan but also in Fata and other parts. The Russian policy towards the subcontinent also underwent some changes. With the presence of the Russian forces in Afghanistan the significance of Pakistan as a frontline state for American interests was once again established, and in the process, the Symington Law was removed in May 1981 for six years and again in 1987 for two years.17 The US arms sales and military assistance to Pakistan was resumed under the pretext that it would provide a sense of security vis-a-vis India and the US would be able to stall Pakistan's nuclear efforts. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. In 1973, the US decided to modify its policy of arms embargo on Pakistan by permitting the sale of non-lethal equipment and spare parts. Has close relations with that country and China the Pokhran explosion had led the US government impose. Its politics as well as in its policy of Containment of Communism in the subcontinent..., had to be providing financial assistance and transit facilities to the ceasefire line in 1949 ( proxy not! 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